When the great innovation appears, it will almost certainly be in muddled, incomplete and confusing form. ...For any speculation which does not at first glance look crazy, there is no hope. — Freeman Dyson (1)
The purpose of this website is to serve as a resource about Cosmic Ancestry ("more than panspermia"), and to help establish it as a possible scientific account of the origin and development of life on Earth. (In it, darwinian processes are still needed for tinkering and selection, but they do not account for macroevolutionary progress or the origin of life.) The website is operated pro bono, without any revenue or profit motive.
|Daily Average||page views||visitors|
|* Feb 2004||2,400||n.a.|
|* Jan 2002||3,100||2,030|
|* Aug 2001||1,650||700|
|* Oct 2000||1,100||510|
|* Feb 2000||1,000||400|
|* peak week | else whole month|
This website was placed on the Internet in May 1996, and is updated almost daily. Significant updates are posted as articles with references on the main What'sNEW page and crosslinked with relevant interior pages (which occasionally are new pages.) All What'sNEW articles are indexed and archived. Minor updates, mostly links to relevant print or web articles, are posted in the "What'sNEW" sections of the appropriate interior pages, where all updates, significant and minor, are listed in reverse chronological order.
Please send your comments about Cosmic Ancestry, inquiries or alerts about resources, and other suggestions to the author via email. Use the link at the top and bottom of every page of the website. We receive many useful suggestions from website visitors. Some emails may be posted to "Replies" if the sender consents; these are also archived and indexed.
AcknowledgmentsThank you. Thank you very much. — Elvis Presley (2)
This website is funded by the Astrobiology Research Trust. It was conceived as a book, and executed with help from many people. Three deserve special mention:
Chandra Wickramasinghe gave me valuable technical advice, hard-to-find resources, and many hours of his time and hospitality.
Fred Hoyle kindly reviewed the manuscript of the unpublished book, co-authored with Chandra a Foreword, and granted the interview excerpted on this website.
Barbara Wade assisted tirelessly with research, transcribing, and proofreading.
This site has been specially recognized by
The AuthorBrig Klyce has actively studied evolution, the origin of life, and panspermia since 1980. In 1995 this activity became his primary occupation. Today he conducts, promotes and publicizes research pertaining to the strong version of panspermia, which he would like to link with Gaia, calling the synthesis Cosmic Ancestry. He has given many lectures and interviews, and presented papers on Cosmic Ancestry at colleges, universities and science conferences from Ames Research Center to Amsterdam. In 2002, Brig established the Astrobiology Research Trust to provide financial support for basic scientific research in astrobiology and closely related fields.
Brig attended Princeton University and received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of Tennessee in 1975. He retired from the textile rental industry in 1995. Brig and Ellen Cooper Klyce have a daughter, Polly, and a son, Walter.
Publications in Print or Online
Brig Klyce, "GTOs and HGT:
Genes are older than expected and can be installed by
horizontal gene transfer, especially with help from viruses" [7-page doc | SPIE abstract], Paper No. 8521-11, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XV [agenda], SPIE, San Diego CA, 27 Sep (delivered 14 Aug) 2012.
Brig Klyce and Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Creationism, Neo-Darwinism and Panspermia" [7-page pdf | local pdf], Journal of Cosmology, online 11 Oct 2011.
Brig Klyce, "Panspermia and Horizontal Gene Transfer" [abstract | 5-page pdf], doi:10.1117/12.832049, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7441, "Astrobiology XII: Instruments, Methods, and Missions," Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, Kurt D. Retherford, eds., 11 Sep (conference 4-6 Aug) 2009.
Brig Klyce interviewed about the Evolution Prize by Tom Barbalet of biota.org: [mp3 | iTunes podcast: scroll to 9/2/2006 | local link], 2 Sep 2006.
Elena V. Pikuta, Richard B. Hoover, Brig Klyce, Paul C. W. Davies and Pauline Davies, "Bacterial utilization of L-sugars and D-amino acids" [abstract], doi:10.1117/12.690434, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 6309, "Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology IX," Richard B. Hoover, Gilbert V. Levin, Alexei Y. Rozanov, eds., 5 Sep (conference presentation 14 Aug) 2006.
Brig Klyce, "The Evolution Prize: Is Open-Ended Evolutionary Innovation in a Closed System Possible?" [2-page pdf]; 1-page version, p 123, ALife X: Workshop Proceedings, Indiana University, Bloomington IN, 3-7 Jun 2006.
Max K. Wallis, N. Chandra Wickramasinghe, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Norimune Miyake, Milton Wainwright and Brig Klyce, "Search For Microbiology In Cryo-genically Collected Stratospheric Particles From Space" [abstract.doc], p 17, International Journal of Astrobiology, Supplement 2004: "Abstracts from the Astrobiology Science Conference 2004" [all abstracts in pdf], NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field CA, 28 March - 1 April 2004.
Brig Klyce and Chandra Wickramasinghe, "Creationism versus Darwinism: A Third Alternative" [pdf: 776 Kb], p 543-548, Darwinism, Design, and Public Education, John Angus Campbell and Stephen C. Meyer, eds., ISBN 0-87013-675-5, Michigan State University Press, 2003.
Thomas Ray and Brig Klyce, "Comparing Standard Darwinism and Strong Panspermia: A Bioinformatic Analysis of Human, Mouse and Intervening Genomes" [print.gif:140kb | CD.gif:44kb | full poster.htm], p 172, Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2002, April 7-11, 2002, at Ames Research Center, Mountain View CA.
Brig Klyce, "Panspermia Asks New Questions" [abstract | html], doi:10.1117/12.435366, p 11-14, The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) in the Optical Spectrum - Conference 22-24 January 2001, San Jose CA: SPIE Proceedings-4273, Stuart Kingsley and Ragbir Bhathal, eds.
Brig Klyce, "Is Sustained Macroevolutionary Progress Possible?" [abstract], p 402, Proceedings of the First Astrobiology Science Conference, April 3-5, 2000, at Ames Research Center, Mountain View CA [full poster in html].
Brig Klyce, "Cosmic Ancestry" [gif], IAA-99-IAA.8.2.04, 50th International Astronautical Congress, 4-8 Oct 1999 / Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Brig Klyce, "In Real or Artificial Life, Is Evolutionary Progress in a Closed System Possible?" [pdf], p 1444 v 2, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Orlando FL, 13-17 July 1999, W. Banzhaf et al., eds., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 1999.
N.C. Wickramasinghe, F. Hoyle and Brig Klyce, "Panspermia in perspective" [abstract], doi:10.1117/12.319845, p 306, Instruments, Methods and Missions for Astrobiology - Conference 20-22 July 1998, San Diego CA: SPIE Proceedings-3441, Richard Hoover, ed.
Cosmic Ancestry is published by the Astrobiology Research Trust. None of its contents may be copied in any medium without an acknowledgment that includes an obvious hypertext link or instructions to find this website. No portion greater than 100 words or two thumbnail images, nor any portion to be used for any commercial purpose, may be copied without express permission from the Astrobiology Research Trust.
Our use of quotations and images from other sources complies with each source's own copyright terms, if known, the "fair use" rule, and our own copyright terms applied reciprocally. We are committed to responsible behavior, fairness and decency.
1. "Innovation in Physics", Scientific American, Sep 1958 [cited in] Martin Gardner, The Night is Large, 1997, p79.
2. Each highlighted number under "References" links you up from a footnote to the referenced point on the same page, like the Elvis quote above. Conversely, the link at the referenced point brings you down to the footnote. The footnote often has a link to the reference material, which may be external or local. Most external links open in a new browser window (close to return).
Website Navigation and CA Icons Explained
A colored navigation bar at the top and bottom of every page contains internal links to the "COSMIC ANCESTRY" (Home), "Quick Guide," and "Next" pages. "Brig Klyce" or "Feedback" in the navigation bar should lead to the email adress of the author of the page.
Purple arrowheads signify links within this website: up or down on the page, back and forth among pages, as if it were a book:
The "left" arrowhead links you toward the front of the site, usually from a headline in the "What'sNEW" section of an ordinary CA webpage to a news article in the main What'sNEW and Archives pages.
The "right" arrowhead links you toward the back of the site, usually from aWhat'sNEW article to the top of a related CA webpage.
A "down" or "up" arrowhead links you to a nearby related article or section, usually on the same webpage.
Major new developments are posted as articles on the What'sNEW page. All of these articles are archived, and indexed on the "Index of What'sNEW in Cosmic Ancestry" webpage. Almost all are crosslinked with relevant interior pages, where return links are listed in the page-specific "What'sNEW" sections.
Minor new developments are posted in page-specific "What'sNEW" sections of ordinary pages, with a blue ball or text icon. These include, as of 1999, all new Related Websites and Related Reading items. A few webpages have multiple What'sNEW sections for different subtopics.
The Blue Ball signifies a link to an external page. Most external links open in a new browser window (close to return).
The text icon signifies a printed work. A link to an external page, such as an [abstract], usually opening in a new browser window, may be included.
CA stands for Cosmic Ancestry.
Beginning in Oct 2004, the little valentine signifies our gratitude to someone for alerting us to news important enough to post as a What'sNEW article.
is used sparingly, mainly on the "Home/Contents" page, to denote a newly added page.
The black diamond designates a bullet point for which no other icon is appropriate.
All great truths begin as blasphemies — George Bernard Shaw
7 Nov 2010: "Search This Website" is a new feature, linked from the (pictured) icon on our Home/Contents page, and from | Site Search | on the top and bottom navigation bars of most pages, including What'sNEW Archive pages from now on.
25 Nov 2008: The Cosmic Ancestry website has a new hosting company, pair.com. We hope access and response time will be better.
8 Jul 2008: A What'sNEW cover page has been added to this website. Now all What'sNEW articles are immediately assigned permanent links. (Formerly, links changed when those articles aged into the Archives.)
7 Dec 2007: Use a credit card to purchase books we offer.
July 2007: Our old email address has been abandoned. We have a new email address, published in a manner intended for humans only.
4 Jul 2007: The Cosmic Ancestry website will soon have a new web host in order to make our service more reliable and secure.
28 Oct 2005: Hurricane Wilma knocked out CA's web host in Florida for six days ending today.
20 Sep 2005: Archived What'sNEW articles about horizontal gene transfer (HGT) have been linked together for sequential viewing [textbox with details].
2005: External links will be displayed in a new browser window (close to return), leaving the referring Cosmic Ancestry webpage open, for continuity. This change is effective for virtually all external links except those in archived What'sNEW articles dated on or before 31 Dec 2000.
2002: We will not link to pages that prevent you from returning to our referring page. As we notice existing links that do, we will purge them.
1998: Items that would qualify as "Related Reading" and "Related Websites" on a given webpage will henceforth be posted instead in the "What'sNEW" section of that webpage. Those former sections, where they appear, will not be updated except to purge bad links.
1998: External links are no longer actively policed for expiration or changes in content. However, if alerted, we will fix a bad link.